1-01-01 THE ARTICLE, NOUNS, PERSONAL PRONOUNS – Artículo, nombre, pronombres personales

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 TEMA 1: The article, noun, personal pronouns

The article and noun 

Article Name or noun
It is a determiner that specifies the gender and the number of the name or the noun to which it accompanies and with which it agrees in gender and number. It goes before the noun. It agrees in gender and number with the article
Definite Indefinite Common Proper
El, la, lo, los y las Un, una, unos y unas -They are spelled with a small letter
-They describe people, animals or things
– They are spelled with a capital letter

-They describe a person or a place in a particular way:

Nombres y apellidos (Names and surnames) (Carlos, Rosa, Pérez y García), países, lugares geográficos, lugares públicos (Japón, Barcelona y Unión Europea), -No llevan artículo (excepto: nombres de ríos, lagos, océanos, mares, montes y archipiélagos (name of rivers, lakes, oceans, seas, hills and archipielagos): el Tajo o el Atlántico; algunos nombres de estados y países, aunque se tiende a suprimir (Some state and country names, although they tend to be deleted): la China o la India; y algunos nombres de ciudades y regiones (some city and region names): El Bierzo o la Habana)

Definite Articles

When the article goes before the adjective, this one turns into a noun because of the article: ¿Cuál es tu coche? El amarillo.

The neuter article lo + adjective has an abstract value, it does not make reference to a specific object: Lo hermoso.

Masculine singular Femenine singular Masculine plural Femenine plural Neuter
El La Los Las Lo
  *We use El when the noun next to it begins with stressed a- or ha-: el agua, el ave, el hacha. In the plural it recovers the feminine form: las aguas, las aves, las hachas.  
Indefinite Articles

They are used to refer for the first time to something, to indentify a person within a group or to express something with an approximate value: : mi hermana ha recibido una invitación.

Masculine singular Femenine singular Masculine plural Femenine plural
Un Una Unos Unas
Presence and absence of the article

-With concrete countable nouns: el , la, los y las. Quiero el vaso verde. 
-With abstract countable nouns: un, una, unos y unas. Quiero un pantalón vaquero
-With uncountable nouns . Quiero azúcar.

Personal pronouns 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Personal pronouns make reference to the individuals that intervene in the communicative situation (speaker and listener) and to that we are referring to (a person, an object, an idea or an action).
Form Uses
  • Some grammatical persons have gender variation (él, ella; nosotros, nosotras…), however, other are invariable (yo, tú).
  • Singular (yo, tú, vos, él, ella, usted).
  • Plural (nosotros/as, vosotros/as, ellos/as, ustedes).
  • In Spanish, it is not obligatory the presence of the subject pronoun, because in almost all cases, the verb ending indicates the person it is making reference. Nevertheless, there are occasions in which its presence is necessary.
  • Identification of people.
    ¿Patricia Fernández? – Sí, soy yo.
  • When answering a question addressed to several persons:
    ¿Quiénes hacen el Camino de Santiago?
    – Nosotros, nosotros lo hacemos.
  • With también and tampoco:
    – He visitado el Museo del Prado. – Yo también.
    – Todavía no tengo puntos. – Yo tampoco.
  • To establish contrast with other subjects:
    Repartimos las tareas: tú buscas información y yo preparo una ruta.
  • To avoid ambiguity:
    Él / ella / usted no dice nada. (We don’t know which person it is)
 SUBJET PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Personal pronouns are the words that represent the person or object they designate. Their function is to replace the noun and make reference to previously known facts by the speaker.

Types of pronouns

  • Personal
  • Numerals
  • Demonstrative
  • Interrogative
  • Possessive
  • Exclamatory
  • Indefinite
  • Relative


Personal pronouns vary in person, number, gender and function.

  • Subject personal pronouns:

They make reference to the persons who carry out the action. The subject personal pronouns represent the verbal person marks.

Person It designates Singular Plural
First The person who speaks Yo Nosotros/Nosotras
Second The person we are speaking with or the listener Vosotros/Vosotras
Third The person or thing we are speaking about Él/Ella Ellos/Ellas
CONTENIDOS ADICIONALES
   ORTOGRAFÍA

     VOCABULARIO

          POEMAS

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