2-05-01 GÉNERO MASCULINO, FEMENINO Y NEUTRO – The gender of nouns

 

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FOTOGRAMAS

 

The gender of nouns

GENDER
Masculine Femenine Neuter
People, animals sor things of this gender People, animals or things of this gender Abstract qualities and concepts without gender. They are preceded by the article “lo”
  • Some nouns that frequently describe people and animals, they use different forms for the feminine and the masculine. This type of nouns are called as heterónimos (heteronyms): padre-madre, hombre-mujer, caballo-yegua, yerno-nuera, toro-vaca, gallo-gallina, etc.
  • The nouns that describe objects, elements, feelings, activities, that is to say, sexless realities, they have a gender mark (masculine or feminine) but they do not change.

By a shortening: la foto, la moto

MASCULINE FEMENINE
Article El/los Un/uno La/las Una/unas
Nouns In a specific way, are masculine the names of: :
Los ríos, los mares, los montes (the rivers, the seas, the hills): el río Tajo
Los números (the numbers): el treinta
Los colores (the colours): el azul
Los días de la semana (the days of the week): el lunes
Los meses del año (the months of a year): junio es caluroso
In a specific way, are feminine the names of :
Las islas (the islands): las Canarias
Las letras del alfabeto (the letters of the alphabet): la hache
Las ciencias (the sciences): la Biología
Ending Usually, are masculine the nouns the end in: -o, -e, -aje or consonant (-n, -r): el maestro, el pie, el paje, el capitán y el calor Usually, are feminine the nouns the end in -a , -ción, -sión, -d: la hermana, la canción, la decisión y la libertad
Demonyms 
With an : -o ending italia-no, ruma-no y amerca-no.
With an -es -is ending: ingl-és
Demonyms
In the feminine the -o is replaced by an -a or if it ends in consonant an -a is added: italian-a, ruman-a, american-a, ingles-a
Masculine nouns that end in -a:el día
Some nouns that end in-ema:el tema y el problema
Feminine nouns that end in o: la mano y la radio
Some feminine nouns that begin by -a or -ha use the article in the sigular form but they are feminine nouns: el alma (las almas), el alba (las albas), el hacha (las hachas)
Heteronyms Caballo
Toro
Yegua
Vaca
  • The nouns with the -ista and -nte endings are feminine and also masculine.
  • There are common nouns regarding the gender that need the determiner in order to specify the gender of the person to whom they make reference: el / la estudiante, el/la periodista, el/la electricista, but in the cases as el/la médica it is better to use the masculine form for both of them. It happens the same with certain demonyms as el/la hindú (de la India)

 

CONTENIDOS ADICIONALES
    ORTOGRAFÍA

   VOCABULARIO

      POEMAS

The article, noun and demonstrative

Article Name or noun
It is a determiner that specifies the gender and the number of the name or the noun to which it accompanies and with which it agrees in gender and number. It goes before the noun. It agrees in gender and number with the article
Definite Indefinite Common Proper
El, la, lo, los y las Un, una, unos y unas -They are spelled with a small letter
-They describe people, animals or things
– They are spelled with a capital letter

-They describe a person or a place in a particular way:

Nombres y apellidos (Names and surnames) (Carlos, Rosa, Pérez y García), países, lugares geográficos, lugares públicos (Japón, Barcelona y Unión Europea), -No llevan artículo (excepto: nombres de ríos, lagos, océanos, mares, montes y archipiélagos (name of rivers, lakes, oceans, seas, hills and archipielagos): el Tajo o el Atlántico; algunos nombres de estados y países, aunque se tiende a suprimir (Some state and country names, although they tend to be deleted): la China o la India; y algunos nombres de ciudades y regiones (some city and region names): El Bierzo o la Habana)

CONTENIDOS ADICIONALES
FRASES

HUMOR

REFRANES

 

Definite Articles

When the article goes before the adjective, this one turns into a noun because of the article: ¿Cuál es tu coche? El amarillo.

The neuter article lo + adjective has an abstract value, it does not make reference to a specific object: Lo hermoso.

Masculine singular Femenine singular Masculine plural Femenine plural Neuter
El La Los Las Lo
*We use El when the noun next to it begins with stressed a- or ha-: el agua, el ave, el hacha. In the plural it recovers the feminine form: las aguas, las aves, las hachas.

Indefinite Articles

They are used to refer for the first time to something, to indentify a person within a group or to express something with an approximate value: : mi hermana ha recibido una invitación.

Masculine singular Femenine singular Masculine plural Femenine plural
Un Una Unos Unas

Presence and absence of the article

-With concrete countable nouns: el , la, los y las. Quiero el vaso verde.
-With abstract countable nouns: un, una, unos y unas. Quiero un pantalón vaquero.
-With uncountable nouns . Quiero azúcar.

Demonstrative Determiners

They are the words that accompany the noun in order to show the distance between the speaker and the object to which it makes reference.
The demonstrative determiners have the same gender and number as the noun to which they accompany.

Singular Plural
Masculine Femenine Masculine Femenine
Distancie Cerca Este Esta Estos Estas
Media Ese Esa Esos Esas
Lejos Aquel Aquella Aquellos Aquellas

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